The attack on the World Trade Centre was orchestrated by al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, who was finally caught and shot dead almost ten years later. The estimated cost of the WTC site damage, including damage to surrounding buildings, infrastructure and subway facilities was thought to be $60 billion.
On May 30, 2002, the cleanup at Ground Zero officially ends. It took 3.1 million hours of labor to clean up 1.8 million tons of debris. The total cost of cleanup was $750 million. It is estimated insurance claims arising from the 9/11 attacks totaled $9.3 billion.
In 2003 architect David Childs is selected to design Freedom Tower, which will be the tallest of the four towers planned for the WTC site. During a special ceremony, a 20-ton slab of granite, inscribed with “the enduring spirit of freedom” is laid as the cornerstone of Freedom Tower by Mayor Michael Bloomberg. But in 2005, it is announced Freedom Tower will be redesigned due to security concerns.
On May 10, 2013, construction workers bolt the last pieces of a 124-meter spire into place atop One World Trade Center, bringing the building to a height of 541 meters.